Sunday, January 30, 2011

Mappy Monday

My Baird Line in Abbeville, South Carolina & Randolph County, Illinois

Mary Jane Baird was born1 October 1811 in Abbeville, SC

She died 13 Febuary 1880 in Preston, Randolph, IL. She

was married on 20 August 1829 in Randolph County, IL to

Millington Couch born 28 January 1809 in Randolph County,

IL he died 20 Febuary 1849.

Mary Jane Baird's parents were, James Baird born 1782 in

Abbeville, SC and died 7 June 1851 in Randolph County, IL. He

married on 1805 in Abeville, SC to Prudence Gibson who was

born 1785 in Abeville, SC. She died 25 August 1843 in Randolph,

County, IL.

James Baird's parents were, John Baird born 1754 Ireland,

died August 1803 in Abbeville, SC. he married Lilias McCurken.

Abbeville County has a rich and colorful history that traces back to the 1700s. The county was formed in 1758 and stretches from the Savannah River to the Saluda River across the upstate and encompasses the towns of Abbeville, Calhoun Falls, Donalds, Due West, and Lowndesville. Abbeville is named after a town in France located in northern France only 20 miles from the Atlantic coastline. Abbeville County South Carolina sits along the Savannah River separating South Carolina and Georgia.

Friday, January 28, 2011

Sentimental Sunday

A Story My Daddy Told Me

Threshing Rack

Betty Kubberness my dad's sister on Buster his horse

My Daddy Donald Ray Kubberness

Fred Kubberness' Farm

My Daddy's horse Buster

My boyfriend and I are truck drivers (I am in the process) and recently we stopped in Peru, IL where my folks live and while my mom was at work my dad came to the truck stop and we sat in Denny's talking. He started to tell me a story about when he was around four years old he would help his dad with the mules and threshing. The mules names were JO and Jack. He spoke of his father (Frederick William Kubberness Jr.) and how he had a special way with horses and mules, my dad's horse Buster would get skittish around bushes and his father noticed this once and walked over to the horse and talked to him and he never got skittish again.. They used the mules for threshing because they worked together better than horses did. My daddy said he always got teased about having mules instead of horses and he hated it.

One day my daddy was leading a new horse around his dad had gotten and he he yelled for his momma to come out and look. She was busy in the house and he had to keep calling her. She finally came to the door and my daddy was so excited to show her how he could walk around and lead the horse so well. A while later his dad told him to leave the horse alone and daddy would cry and ask to take the horse and his dad always said "No" so he would go running to his mom and cry that his daddy wouldn't let him lead that horse no more. He now realizes that his mom told his dad not to let him lead the horse because he was too little and could get hurt. But all those years his dad never said it was because your momma said so.

Later as he grew up he did get his own horse he names Buster. See picture's of him and his sister Betty.

Threshing History:

Threshing is the process of loosening the edible part of cereal grain (or other crop) from the scaly, inedible chaff that surrounds it. It is the step in grain preparation after harvesting and before winnowing, which separates the loosened chaff from the grain. Threshing does not remove the bran from the grain.

Threshing may be done by beating the grain using a flail on a threshing floor. Another traditional method of threshing is to make donkeys or oxen walk in circles on the grain on a hard surface. A modern version of this in some areas is to spread the grain on the surface of a country road so the grain may be threshed by the wheels of passing vehicles.

However, in developed areas it is now mostly done by machine, usually by a combine harvester, which harvests, threshes, and winnows the grain while it is still in the field.

The cereal may be stored in a threshing barn.

Surname Saturday

Couch line: first picture is of Emma (unknown), Carrie Phyllis Couch (my grand aunt) born 14 December 1897 in Bronson, Woodbury, Iowa. Died 29 May 1926 in Sioux City, Woodbury, Iowa.

Pete (unknown), Dorothy Couch (My grandmother) born 8 January 1903 in Elgin, Antelope, Nebraska. Died 9 April 2001 in Stockton, California. Charlie (unknown), Conrad (not sure if that's what's written he is also unknown at this time), Earl James Couch (my grand uncle) born 20 October 1899 in Elgin, Antelope, Nebraska. Died 2 October 1996 in Sioux City, Woodbury, Iowa.

Gladys Mae (my grand aunt) born 25 December 1904 in Elgin, Antelope, Nebraska. Died 25 January 1996 in Sioux City, Woodbury, Iowa, Raymond Jacob Couch (my grand uncle) born 9 June 1901 in Elgin, Antelope, Nebraska. Died April 1930 in Iowa.

The second picture is Carrie Phyllis Couch.

The last picture we can only identify Carrie, my grandmother Dorothy and her husband George Edgar Robertson, Earl James Couch, and a person named Pete we do not know if he's a relative or friend of the family.

I am hoping someone can help us identify some of these people, this would be a wonderful treasure if they are missing links to our family tree.

Wednesday, January 26, 2011

Thriller Thrusday

Rudolf II (died July 11, 937) was king of Upper Burgundy (912-937), Lower Burgundy (Provence) (933-937), and Italy (effective, 922-926-claim abandoned 933). He was the son of Rudolf I, king of Upper Burgundy, and it is presumed that his mother was his father's known wife, Guilla of Provence. He married Bertha of Swabia.

Following his ascent to the throne in 912, Rudolf was asked by several Italian nobles to intervene in Italy on their behalf against Emperor Berengar in 922. Having entered Italy, he was crowned King of the Lombards at Pavia. In 923, he defeated Berengar at Piacenza; Berengar was murdered the following year, possibly at the instigation of Rudolf. The king then ruled Upper Burgundy and Italy together, residing alternately in both kingdoms.

However, in 926 the Italian nobility turned against him and requested that Hugh of Arles, the effective ruler of Provence (or Lower Burgundy), rule them instead. Rudolf returned to Upper Burgundy to protect himself, assuring Hugh's coronation as King of Italy in the process. The Italians then switched sides again, declaring that they wished for Rudolf to reclaim the throne. To prevent this, Hugh and Rudolf signed a treaty in 933, granting Rudolf rule of Lower Burgundy in exchange for his renunciation of all claims on the Italian throne. He married his daughter Adelaide to Hugh's son Lothar. The two Burgundian kingdoms unified, Rudolf ruled until his death in 937. He was succeeded by Conrad.

Monday, January 24, 2011

Follow Friday: Natalia

I would like to introduce you to a fabulous blogger, she lives in British Columbia, Canada. Her interests are vintage photographs which is what her blog is about. She has beautiful vintage photo's that take you back in time. I was amazed at her knowledge and descriptions of the photo's.
Very lovely blog Natalia I will be following you.

Wedding Wednesday

My Grand Aunt Augusta Sophia Louise Kubernusmarried William Sherman 20 Febuary 1895 in Pecatonica, IL at her parents farm west of town at 4pm on a Wednesday afternoon.

Talented Tuesday

Sweet Adelines Staring Ruth G (Robertson) Kubberness

(Ruth is in the 3rd row 3rd one to the left)

My mom has many talents from cermanic's to being a professional clown.

When she lived in Bismarck, ND she was a part of the Sweet Adelines which is a highly respected world wide organization of women singeers committed to advancing the musical art form of barbershop harmony through education and proformance.

Friday, January 21, 2011

Sunday's Obituary

Frederick William Kubbernus SR (Johann Fredrich Theodor Kubbernus) was born 5 November 14 in Levin, Demmin, Mscklenburg-Vorpommon, Germany. He died 26 Jun 1930 Flandeau, moody, South Dakota. He was buried in Arlington Cemetery in Arlington, Kingsbury, South Dakota.

He was my Great grandfather on my dad's side. (Adoted side).

Surname Saturday

I seem to have a lot of brick walls I run into on my dad's side of my family tree. First he was adopted and I do have his real mom's side that was given to me from his Aunt Catherine Oswald. But his adopted father's side can be difficult as well.

Some have told me not to bother with my dad's adopted side because they aren't blood. But my Gramma Kub was a big influence on my life and as far as I am concerned she will always be my gramma. I feel both sides are important to the future ancestor's to come. So here's a surname I have been working on.

Johann Hamp/Hampe

born on 123 in Levin, Demmin, Mecklenburg-Vorpommem, Geermany.

he married Sophia Schoeknecht born on 157 in Ohio


Wilhemina Hamp (My great-Grandmother) born 1 March 149 in Levin, Demmin, Mecklenburg-Vorpommen, Germany. died 21 Feb 196 in Pecatonica, Winnebago, Illinois. Buried in Pecatonica Cemetery. Married to Frederick William Kubbernus (Johann Frerich Theodor Kubbernus) on 7 February 1873 Levin, Mecklenburg, Germany.

Family Recipe Friday: Family Tresure

This recipe is one my mom would make for party's.

Party Punch

2qt Tropical Koolade
1 qt Sherbert (any flavor) only add a 1/3 of it to start with
2 litter bottle of white soda Sierra Mist, Sprite, 7-UP

Mix into a punch bowl add Sherbert last letting it sit in the middle of bowl.

Drink up!!!!

By Ruth G Robertson- Kubberness

Tuesday, January 18, 2011

Thriller Thursday



Archibald Douglas is my 15th Great Grandfather on my mother's side. he was born abt 1445 Kilmaurs, Aryshire, Scotland, died before 31 January 1513/1514 in Wigtownshire, Scotland. This is his story.

He was the 5th Earl of Angus; Lord of Liddesdale Thur 1491 "...Fifth Earl of Angus, became the most powerful nobleman in the kingdom, and was commonly called the Great Eral. He was only 14yrs of age when he seceded his father. On attaining the maturity the young Earl did not prove more loyal than his Kings men of the elder branch. When the Duke of Albany quarrelled with his brother, King James III, and fled into England, Angus became a party to the treasonable treaty which Albany concluded with the English King for the acknowledgement of his sovereignty, and ceding to him Eskdale, Annan dale, and Liddesdale, on condition of being made King of Scotland. The young Earl (in his twenty-eighth year) was the leader of the discontented nobles who were indignant at the preference which the kings showed for architects, musicals and painters, and deter minded to seize the person of their sovereign and to the wreak their vengeance on his favorites. The muster of their feudal array for the purpose of invading England, in retaliation for the ravage which and English army had made in Scotland, afforded them a favorable opportunity for carrying their nefarious schemes into effect. On their march to the Border the army halted for the first night at Lauder, and next morning the principal conspirators held a secret council in the church to arrange for the immediate execution of their designs. They were all agreed as to what should be done, and they hesitated as to the best mode of proceeding. Lord Gray, as Gods croft relates the occupancies, craved audience, and told them the apologies of the mice, who consulting in a public meeting how to be sure from the cat's surprising them, found out a very good way, which was to hang a bell about her neck, that would ring as she stepped, and so give them warning of her approach, that they might save themselves by flight.
He became known as the "Great" Earl of Angus and, perhaps more famously, as "Bell the Cat". He became the most powerful nobleman in the realm through a successful rebellion and established his family as the most important in the kingdom.

In 1481, Angus was made warden of the east marches, but the next year he joined the league against James III and his favourite Robert Cochrane at Lauder. Here he earned his nickname by offering to "bell the cat" – that is, to deal with the latter – beginning the attack upon him by pulling his gold chain off his neck, and causing him and others of the king's favourites to be hanged. The phrase "to bell the cat" comes from one of Aesop's fables, The Mice in Council, and means a dangerous task that is undertaken for the benefit of all.

Subsequently he joined Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany, in league with Edward IV of England on the 11 February 1483, signing the convention at Westminster which acknowledged the overlordship of the English king. However, in March they returned, outwardly at least, to their allegiance, and received pardons for their treason.

Later, Angus was one of the leaders in the rebellion against James in 1487 and 1488 which ended in the latter's death.

He was made one of the guardians of the young king James IV. but soon lost influence, being superseded by the Homes and Hepburns, and the wardenship of the marches was given to Alexander Home. Though outwardly on good terms with James, he treacherously made a treaty with Henry VII around 1489 or 1491, by which he undertook to govern his relations with James according to instructions from England. He also agreed to hand over Hermitage Castle, commanding the pass through Liddesdale into Scotland, on the condition of receiving English estates in compensation.

In October 1491 he fortified his castle of Tantallon against James, but was obliged to submit and exchange his Liddesdale estate and Hermitage Castle for the lordship of Bothwell.

In 1493 he was again in favour, receiving various grants of lands, and was made chancellor, which office he retained till 1498. In 1501 he was once more in disgrace and confined to Dumbarton Castle. After the disaster at Flodden Field in 1513, at which he was not present, but at which he lost his two eldest sons, Angus was appointed one of the counsellors of the queen regent. He died at the close of this year, or in 1514.

5th Earl of Angus, in a feud with Spens of Kilspindie, tore off Spen's leg with one stroke of his great sword. This appears to be how the lands of Kilspindie passed to the Douglases. Also later Douglas of Kilspindie used the title 'Greysteel' which may refer to the sword stroke used to obtain the lands of Kilspindie.

Battle of Flodden Field - 1513

FLODDEN, or FLODDEN FIELD, near the village of Branxton, in Northumberland, England (10 m. N.W. of Wooler), the scene of a famous battle fought on the 9th of September 1513 between the English and the Scots.

On the 22nd of August a great Scottish army under King James IV. had crossed the border. For the moment the earl of Surrey (who in King Henry ViII.’s absence was charged with the defence of the realm) had no organized force in the north of England, but James wasted much precious time among the border castles, and when Surrey appeared at Wooler, with an army equal in strength to his own, which was now greatly weakened by privations and desertion, he hall not advanced beyond Ford Castle.

The English commander promptly sent in a challenge to a pitched battle, which the king, in spite of the advice of his most trusted counsellors, accepted. On the 6th of September, however, he left Ford and took up a strong position facing south, on Flodden Edge. Surrey”i reproaches for the alleged breach of faith, and a second challenge to fight on Millfield Plain were this time disregarded. The English commander, thus foiled, executed a daring and skilful march round the enemy’s flank, and on the 9th drew up for battle in rear of the hostile army.

It is evident that Surrey was confident of victory, for he placed his own army, not less than the enemy, in a position where defeat would involve utfer ruin. On his appearance the Scots hastily changed front and took post on Branxton Hill’, facing north. The battle began at 4 P.M. Surrey’s archers and cannon soon gained the upper hand, and the Scots, unable quietly to endure their losses, rushed to close quarters. Their left wing drove the English back, but Lord Dacre’s reserve corps restored the fight on this side.

In all other parts of the field, save where James and Surrey were personally opposed, the English , gradually gained ground. The king’s corps was then attacked by Surrey in front, and by Sir Edward Stanley in flank. As the Scots were forced back, a part of Dacre’s force cio~ed upon the other flank, and finally Dacre himself, boldly neglecting an almost intact Scottish division in front of him, charged in upon the rear of King James’s corps. Surrounded and attacked on all sides, this, the remnant of the invading army, was doomed. The circle of spearmen around the king grew less and less, and in the end James and a few of his nobles were alone left standing. Soon they too died, fighting to the last man.

Among the ten thousand Scottish dead were all the leading men in the kingdom of Scotland, and there was no family of importance that had not lost a member in this great disaster. The “King’s Stone,” said to mark the spot where James was killed, is at some distance from the actual battlefield. “ Sybil’s Well,” in Scott’s Marinion, is imaginary.

Scottish dead included twelve earls, fifteen lords, many clan chiefs an archbishop and above all KingJames himself. It is said that every great family in Scotland mourned the loss of someone at the Battleof Flodden. The dead were remembered in the famous Scottish pipe tune The Flowers of the Forest.

Wedensday Child

Jonathan Alexander Giardini my oldest Grandchild. He was born to Barbara Jean Giardini on9 June 2005 and died 9 June 2005 in Baltimore, Maryland. He lived for about 6 hours. The hospital creamated him and put him in a urn of Barbie's choosing. She picked a blue urn with whit doves on it.

Every year on his birthday we light a candle and place it by his picture.

"God bless our little angel"

(This is Christopher Darrion Cook's 1/2 brother).

Monday, January 17, 2011

Tombstone Tuesday

Adam Potter Cavit was born 2 April 1839 in PA and died 22 Nov 1915 in Losa Angeles, CA. He's buried in the Los Angeles National Cemetery. He was a Civil War Veteran. O Company, Reg 13th Iowa Inf. Pvt. under John L Parker.

Military Monday

Adam Potter Cavit Civil War Veteran

Adam Potter Cavit was in the South Dakota Soldiers' Home in Faulkton, Faulk, South Dakota. He states on one document that he was in the war for 9 years, yet one of his enlistment dates is 4 Oct 1864. O Company, Reg 13th Iowa Inf. Pvt. under John L Parker. a discharge date of 21 Jul 1865 states the end of the war as a reason for discharge, in Louisville, KY.

While in the Soldiers' Home he was diagnosed as having a stroke and mentally bad, memory not good. He was recieving $12 a month pension (Pension cert # 600612).

On one form he said his closest living relative was his sister Olive Ann Foor, on another form he stated if he should died in the Soldiers Home he wanted John Robertson of Sioux City, IA to be informed and was his closest living relative.

A letter he recieved at this address, 1320 E 59th St, Los Angeles, CA, from the Soldiers' Home stated that they were dropping him since he had not been there since 14 Jan 1912.

He died 22 Nov 1915 in Los Angeles, CA. I am assuming he lived with his sister there because she died 24 March 1933 in Los Angeles, CA.

Adam is my 2nd great grand uncle.

Sunday, January 16, 2011

Sentimental Sunday: My Grandson Christopher

My Grandson Christopher Darrion Cook!


Christopher is my oldest grandchild at age 4. Which is a fun age. We spend at lot of time together when I am home. We play games, color, read books, cook. I have been teaching him how to make hot cocoa and cookies. He loves to cook.

He was Dec 28th 2007 in Bismarck, ND at St. Alexius Hospital.

Shortly after he was born my daughter Barbie and her boyfriend Chris, moved into our place so I could help raise Christopher. Surprisingly a wonderful bond has magically developed between us and I can not thank God enough for having this "Little Man" (We call him) in my life and in my soul. I thought is was a mircle to have my own children but there's something even more special about having grandbabies. Christopher is the oldest of 6 grandbabies I have. He is Barbie's only child. Barbara jean Giardini is my oldest child born on Dec 23, 1984 in Bismarck, ND.

My other grandchildren and their parents are:

Ambrosia Sue Giardini & Timothy James Whittington: Brooke Lynn Whittington born Dec21, 2008, in Bismarck, ND

Annastacia Marie Giardini & Byron Smith: Jada Marie Smith Born Dec 16, 2008 , Nayziah and Jordon in Bismarck, ND

Rebecca Rae Giardini and Andrew Friday- Johnson: Kayleigh Elizabeth Friday-Johnson July 20, 2007 born in Baltimore, MD, Olivia Marie Aug 1, 2008 Baltimore, MD and Naviah John Girdini born Aug 6, 2009 in Bismarck, ND.

This is my family and I love them with all my heart.

Update: Christopher has a little brother now. His name is Jamel and he loves him and helps take care of him, they are growing a loving bond.

Thursday, January 13, 2011

Surname Saturday

Map of Germany
Godefroy's Coat of Arms

Unattributed biography of Godefroy Duke of Alamannia:

Godefroy Duke of Alamannia - ruled the region of western Europe, on both sides of the Upper Rhine (modern E. France and W. Germany) home of the Alamanni in the time of Clovis I, a Frankish Province, later in 1000 it became a Duchy. The Alamanni (having lived by the Lake Laman) were of the Sueva stock on the upper Rhine River in southern Germany.

At the death of Godefroy of the Alamanni in 730, his kingdom was joined to the Frankish empire as a dukedom. His son, Houching was the 1st dux. (duke)

Godefroy was seen 679-708 and dead in 709. The Alamanni were defeated (486) and conquered by the Franks under Clovis (q.v.) in 502/507; Frankish administration (Counts) and Christianity were introduced. The territory of the Alemanni remained a distinctive administrative unit, the Duchy of Alamannia, (Swabia) which stretched along both banks of the Rhine from the Alps to Strassburg or beyond.

Duke Godfrey Alamannia is my 9th great grandfather of 4th great grand aunt of 1st cousin 23x removed. (Wow! thank goodness for my Family Tree Maker program)

Follow Friday: Genealogybank is the largest newspaper archives for family history research. They have a 30 day trial for $9.95.

This website has Newspaper Obituaries from 1977 -current

Historical Newspapers from 1690-2007

Historical Books from 1801-1900

Historical Documents from 1789-1984

Soical Security Death Index from 1937-current

African-American Newspaper 1827-1999 (Just released)

Please check it out and hopefully you will find that missing link you've been hoping for.

Wednesday, January 12, 2011

Thriller Thursday: Adam Hepburn

This is a short history of my 17th great grandfather on my mother's side.

Sir Adam Hepburn of Hailes succeeded his grandfather Patrick Hepburn.

He was one of the Scottish Commissioners sent to England in 1423 to treat for the release of King James I from captivity, which they happily accomplished.

He took prominent part in public affairs, and when the estates of the Dunbar and March families were forfeited in 1434 he was sent to take possession of the Castle Dunbar.

In 1435 the Earl of Agnes with Adam Hepburn of Hailes and Ramsay of Dalhousie, defeated the Northlumberland yeomen, under the leadership of their Eral, at Piperdeeanin Northlumberland. According to Bower the Scots took 1500 prisoners, but other authorities name a small number.

The name Hepburn is probably a local one derived from lands in Northumberland, at one time disputed territory between England & Scotland. Chalmers (Caledonia ii440) believed that these lands lay in Morpeth ward, where there ia a place now called Hebron; but it seems more probable that the surname was taken from Hebburn in the parish of Chillingham, where a amily of that name flourished from the 13th century or earlier till late in the 18th century when it ended in an heiress. Their 'bastle' was still standing in Chillingham Park in the 19th century.

The house of Hepburn of hailes is traditionally reported to have been founded by an Englishman taken prisoner in the regin of King David II, and long detained for non-payment of a ransom, who, having on one occasion rescued the Earl of March from a savage horse, was rewarded by the grant of lands in Eath Lothian. (Hector Boece, bellenden's translations, 1536. Book xiv 235b).
Hepburn is believed to have intrigued with the widowed Queen Mary of Gueldres, a young and beautiful woman. He attached himself to the party of the Boyds, and was concerned in the seizure of King James III at Linlithgow on 9 July 1466, for which he obtained a remission from Parliament dated 13 October that year.

Adam Hepburn of Dunsyre is one of the several illustrious jurors on an Azzize, 5 March 1470/1, which acquitted Andrew Ker of Cessford of aiding and abetting James Douglas "traitor from England within Scotland", for his association with Robert Lord Boyd after he was declared a rebel, and other accusations, all of which Ker had denied. Others on the jury were Archibald, Earl of Angus, David, Earl of Craufurd, Alexander, Lord Kilmaurs, James, Lord Hamilton, and Sir Alexander Lauder of Haltoun. (Hist. MSS).

He was killed inthe Battle of Flodden.

The Battle of Flodden or Flodden Field was fought in the county of Northumberland in northern England on 9 September 1513, between an invading Scots army under King James IV and an English army commanded by Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey. It ended in a victory for the English and was the largest battle (in terms of numbers) fought between the two nations

This conflict began when James IV, King of Scots declared war on England to honour the Auld Alliance with France by diverting Henry VIII's English troops from their campaign against the French king Louis XII. Henry VIII had also opened old wounds by claiming to be the overlord of Scotland which angered the Scots and the King. At this time England was involved in the War of the League of Cambrai – defending Italy and the Pope from the French (see Italian Wars) as a member of the "Catholic League".
Using the pretext of revenge for the murder of Robert Kerr, a warden of the Scottish East March who had been killed by John "The bastard" Heron in 1508, James invaded England with an army of about 30,000 men in 1513. In keeping with his understanding of the medieval code of chivalry, King James sent notice to the English, one month in advance, of his intent to invade. This gave the English time to gather an army and, as importantly, to retrieve the banner of Saint Cuthbert from the cathedral of Durham, a banner which had been carried by the English in victories against the Scots in 1138 and 1346. After a muster on the Burgh Muir of Edinburgh, the Scottish host moved to Ellemford and camped to wait for Angus and Home, and then crossed the River Tweed near Coldstream. By the 29 August, Norham Castle was taken and partly demolished. The Scots moved south capturing the castles of Etal and Ford. A later chronicler, Robert Lindsay of Pitscottie, tells the story that James wasted valuable time at Ford enjoying the company of Lady Heron and her daughter.

The battle actually took place near the village of Branxton, in the county of Northumberland, rather than at Flodden — hence the alternative name is Battle of Branxton. The Scots had previously been stationed at Flodden Edge, to the south of Branxton, which the Earl of Surrey compared to a fortress. Surrey moved to block off the Scots' route north and so James was forced to move his army and artillery 2 miles to Branxton Hill. When the armies were within 3 miles of each other Surrey sent Rouge Croix pursuivant to James who answered that he would wait till noon. At 11 o'clock Lord Howard's vanguard and artillery crossed the Twissell Bridge. (Pitscottie says the king would not allow the Scots artillery to fire on the vulnerable English during this manouevre.)The Scots army was in good order in 5 formations, after the Almain (German) manner. On Friday afternoon the Scots host descended without speaking any word to meet the English.

According to English report, first the groups commanded by the Earls of Huntly, Arran and Crawford totalling 6000 men engaged Lord Howard and were repulsed and mostly slain. Then James IV himself leading a great force came on to Surrey and Lord Darcy's son who bore the brunt of the battle. Lennox and Argyll's commands were met by Sir Edward Stanley.

Western side of the battlefield, looking south-south-east from the monument erected in 1910. The Scottish army advanced down the ploughed field, the English down the grassy field in the foreground, and they met, presumably at the valley boundary between the two fields.James was killed within a spear length from Surrey and his body taken to Berwick. The 'rent surcoat of the King of Scots stained with blood' was sent to Henry VIII at Tournai. The biggest error the Scots made was placing their officers in the front line, medieval style. A Scottish letter of January 1514 contrasts this loss of the nobility with the English great men who took their stand with the reserves and at the rear. The English generals stayed behind the lines in the Renaissance style. The loss of so many Scottish officers meant there was no one to coordinate a retreat.

Flodden was essentially a victory of bill used by the English over the pike used by the Scots. As a weapon, the pike was effective only in a battle of movement, especially to withstand a cavalry charge. The pike had become a Swiss weapon of choice and represented modern warfare. The hilly terrain of Northumberland, the nature of the combat, and the slippery footing did not allow it to be employed to best effect. Bishop Ruthall reported to Wolsey, 'the bills disappointed the Scots of their long spears, on which they relied. The infantrymen at Flodden, both Scots and English, had fought in a fashion that in essence would have been familiar to their ancestors, and it has rightly been described as the last great medieval battle in the British Isles. This was the last time that bill and pike would come together as equals in battle. Two years later Francis I defeated the Swiss pikemen at the Battle of Marignano, using a combination of heavy cavalry and artillery, ushering in a new era in the history of war. An official English diplomatic report issued by Brian Tuke noted the Scots' iron spears but concluded: 'the English halberdiers decided the whole affair, so that in the battle the bows and ordnance were of little use.

Despite Tuke's comment (he was not present), tactically, this battle was one of the first major engagements on the British Isles where artillery was significantly deployed. John Lesley, writing sixty years later, noted the Scottish bullets flew over the English heads while the English cannon was effective, the one army placed so high and the other so low. The battle is considered the last decisive use of the longbow, yet through the 16th century the English longbowmen continued to have success, as in the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh. Many of these archers were recruited from Lancashire and Cheshire. Sir Richard Assheton raised one such company from Middleton, near Manchester. In gratitude for his safe return, he rebuilt St. Leonard's, the local parish church. It contains the unique "Flodden Window" depicting each of the archers, and the priest who accompanied them, by name in stained glass.

Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk was given an augmentation of honour to commemorate the Battle of Flodden FieldAs a reward for his victory, Howard was subsequently restored to the title of "Duke of Norfolk", lost by his father's support for Richard III. The arms of the Dukes of Norfolk still carry an augmentation of honour awarded on account of their ancestor's victory at Flodden, a modified version of the Royal coat of arms of Scotland with an arrow through the lion's mouth.

Soon after the battle there were legends that James IV had survived; a Scottish merchant at Tournai in October claimed to have spoken with him, Lindsay of Pitscottie records two myths; "thair cam four great men upon hors, and every ane of thame had ane wisp upoun thair spear headis, quhairby they might know one another and brought the king furth of the feild, upoun ane dun hackney," and also that the king escaped from the field but was killed between Duns and Kelso. Similarly, John Lesley adds that the body taken to England was "my lord Bonhard" and James was seen in Kelso after the battle and then went secretly on pilgrimage in far nations.

Every noble family in Scotland was supposed to have lost a member at Flodden. The dead are remembered by the song (and pipe tune) "The Flowers of the Forest";

We'll hae nae mair lilting, at the yowe-milking,
Women and bairns are dowie and wae.
Sighing and moaning, on ilka green loaning,
The flowers of the forest are all wede away.

Surrey's army lost 1,500 men killed. There were various conflicting accounts of the Scottish loss. A contemporary French source, the Gazette of the Battle of Flodden, said that about 10,000 Scots were killed, a claim made by Henry VIII on 16 September while he was still uncertain of the death of James IV. Italian newsletters put the Scottish losses at 18 or 20 thousand and the English at 5000. Brian Tuke, the English Clerk of the Signet, sent a newsletter stating 10,000 Scots killed and 10,000 escaped the field. Tuke reckoned the total Scottish invasion force to have been 60,000 and the English army at 40,000. George Buchanan wrote in his History of Scotland (published in 1582) that, according to the lists that were compiled throughout the counties of Scotland, there were about 5,000 killed. A plaque on the monument to the 2nd Duke of Norfolk (as the Earl of Surrey became in 1514) at Thetford put the figure at 17,000.

Notable men who died included:

James IV , King of Scots (1488–1513); died in battle
Alexander Stewart, Archbishop of St. Andrews and Lord Chancellor of Scotland; died in battle
Lieutenant General Archibald Campbell, 2nd Earl of Argyll; died in battle
Sir Alexander Boswell of Balmuto; died in battle
Thomas Boswell of Auchinleck; died in battle
John Campbell of Auchreoch; died in battle
Donald Campbell of Duntroon; said to have died in battle
Sir Duncan Campbell, 2nd of Glenorchy; died in battle
George Campbell of Cessnock; died in battle
Niall Campbell of Melfort; died in battle
John Carnegie, 5th of Kinnaird; died in battle
William Craig, of Craigfintray Castle, Aberdeenshire; died in battle
Robert Elwold (Elliott, leader of the Elliott Clan); died in battle
Alan Cathcart, Master of that ilk; died in battle
George Douglas, Master of Angus; died in battle
Sir William Douglas of Drumlanrig
Sir William Douglas of Glenbervie; died in battle
John Douglas, 2nd Earl of Morton; died in battle
Alexander Elphinstone the Younger; died in battle
Alexander Elphinstone, 1st Lord Elphinstone
William Graham, 1st Earl of Montrose; led part of the Scottish vanguard; died in battle
John Hay, 2nd Lord Hay of Yester; presumed died in battle, body not recovered
James Henderson (or Henrysone), Laird of the barony of Fordell, Fife; Lord Justice Clerk; killed along with his eldest son, see below.
(Robert) Henderson, eldest son of above; killed with his father.
Adam Hepburn, 2nd Earl of Bothwell
George Hepburn
Andrew Herries, 2nd Lord Herries of Terregles
David Kennedy, 1st Earl of Cassilis
Alexander Lauder of Blyth
George Leslie, 2nd Earl of Rothes
John Lindsay, 6th Earl of Crawford, Scottish field commander.
Uchtred MacDowall, 9th of Garthland; died in battle
Thomas MacDowall of Renfrewshire son of Uchtred; died in battle
Lachlan MacLean, 10th Captain of Clan MacLean
John Maxwell, 4th Lord Maxwell[24]
John Mure of Rowallan; died in battle
Thomas Otterburn; died in battle
Sir Alexander Napier; died in battle
Alexander Ramsay of Dalhousie; died in battle
Sir John Ramsay of Trarinzeane;died in battle.
Sir John Rattray, Lord of that Ilk; died in battle
John Ross, 2nd Lord Ross of Halkhead; died in battle
William Ruthven of that ilk; died in battle
Sir Christopher Savage; died in battle
John Sempill, 1st Lord Sempill of Eliotstoun; died in battle
George Seton, 5th Lord Seton; died in battle
William Sinclair, 2nd Earl of Caithness
Sir John Somerville of Cambusnethan; died in battle
James Stewart, laird of Traquair; died in battle
Matthew Stewart, 2nd Earl of Lennox; died in battle
Sir Iain MacFarlane, 11th Captain (Chief) of Clan Pharlane; died in battle
Lord Stuart Garry, 3rd captain of Clan Garry
Sir Brian Tunstall; died in battle
Sir Peter Houstoun, of Houston, Lanark, Knight, died defending James IV
[edit] Battlefield todayThe battlefield still looks much as it probably did at the time of the battle, but the burn and marsh which so badly hampered the Scots advance is now drained. A monument, erected in 1910, is easily reached from Branxton village by following the road past St Paul's Church. There is a small car park and a clearly marked and signposted battlefield trail with interpretive boards which make it easy to visualise the battle. Only the chancel arch remains of the medieval church where James IV's body was said to have rested after the battle – the rest is Victorian, dating from 1849 in the "Norman" style.